COP 18 Outcomes
The 18th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in Doha, Qatar from November 26 to December 8, 2012. Despite divergent views and interests on a number of key issues, Parties were able to make progress at this "implementation COP", where the key outcomes focused largely on the negotiation process rather than on any substantive issues.
- Concluding, once and for all, the two tracks of negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention. Parties can now focus their efforts under the Durban Platform track of negotiations to reach a new, post-2020 agreement that includes commitments by all major emitters.
- Adoption of a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol from 2013 to 2020, including targets for the European Union, Australia, Switzerland, Norway, Ukraine and other developed countries that have chosen to take part.
- Making progress on further clarifying the process under the Durban Platform negotiations. Substantive discussions will begin next year on a single, new, post-2020 international climate change agreement and on ways to raise global mitigation ambition prior to 2020.
- Continued implementation of agreed outcomes on key issues (e.g., finance, adaptation, technology, deforestation [REDD+], mitigation, measurement, reporting and verification, and markets) under existing or newly-established bodies under the UNFCCC.
- Agreement to continue the work programme on long-term finance for another year, with a view to identifying at COP 19 "pathways for mobilizing $100 billion per year by 2020" from public, private and alternative sources.